Book Cover-01Book Cover-01 Chapter 8

  1. Bush v. Gore, 531 U.S. 98 (2000), is the United States Supreme Court decision that effectively resolved the dispute surrounding the 2000 presidential election in favor of George W. Bush. Only eight days earlier, the United States Supreme Court had unanimously decided the closely related case of Bush v. Palm Beach County Canvassing Board, 531 U.S. 70 (2000), and only three days earlier, had preliminarily halted the recount that was occurring in Florida. On December 9, the U.S. Supreme Court voted 5 to 4 to stay the Florida recount, because according to Justice Scalia: “It suffices to say that the issuance of the stay suggests that a majority of the Court, while not deciding the issues presented, believe that the petitioner has a substantial probability of success. The issue is not, as the dissent puts it, whether “[c]ounting every legally cast vote ca[n] constitute irreparable harm.” One of the principal issues in the appeal we have accepted is precisely whether the votes that have been ordered to be counted are, under a reasonable interpretation of Florida law, “legally cast vote[s].” The counting of votes that are of questionable legality does in my view threaten irreparable harm to petitioner Bush, and to the country, by casting a cloud upon what he claims to be the legitimacy of his election. Count first, and rule upon legality afterwards, is not a recipe for producing election results that have the public acceptance democratic stability requires.”

Chapter 10

  1. The Russell Trust Association is the business name for the New Haven, Connecticut-based Skull and Bones society, incorporated in 1856.
  2. The New World Order refers to the emergence of a bureaucratic collectivist one-world government. The common theme in conspiracy theories about a New World Order is that a secretive power elite with a globalist agenda is conspiring to eventually rule the world through an authoritarian world government—which replaces sovereign nation-states — and an all-encompassing propaganda that idolizes its establishment as the culmination of history’s progress. Significant occurrences in politics and finance are speculated to be orchestrated by an unduly influential cabal operating through many front organizations. Numerous historical and current events are seen as steps in an on-going plot to achieve world domination through secret political gatherings and decision-making processes.

Chapter 11

  1. Oliver Laurence North (born October 7, 1943) is a former U.S. Marine Corps officer, political commentator, host of War Stories with Oliver North on Fox News Channel, a military historian, and a New York Times best-selling author. North was at the center of national attention during the Iran-Contra affair, a political scandal of the late 1980s. North was a National Security Council staff member involved in the clandestine sale of weapons to Iran, which served to encourage the release of U.S. hostages from Lebanon. North formulated the second part of the plan: diverting proceeds from the arms sales to support the Contra rebel groups in Nicaragua (funding to the Contras had been prohibited under the Boland Amendment amidst widespread public opposition in the U.S. and controversies surrounding human rights abuses by the Contras). North was charged with several felonies and convicted of three, but the convictions were later vacated, and the underlying charges dismissed due to the limited immunity agreement granted for his pre-trial public Congressional testimony about the affair.

Chapter 12

  1. Mutual Assured Destruction, or Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD), is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of high-yield weapons of mass destruction by two opposing sides would effectively result in the complete, utter and irrevocable annihilation of both the attacker and the defender, becoming thus a war that has no victory nor any armistice but only effective reciprocal destruction. It is based on the theory of deterrence according to which the deployment, and implicit menace of use, of strong weapons is essential to threaten the enemy in order to prevent the use by said-enemy of the same weapons against oneself. The strategy is effectively a form of Nash equilibrium in which neither side, once armed, has any incentive to disarm thereafter.

Chapter 15

  1. The 2008 Chinese milk scandal was a food safety incident in the People’s Republic of China, involving milk and infant formula, and other food materials and components, adulterated with melamine.

Chapter 17

  1. Rush Hudson Limbaugh III, born January 12, 1951) is an American entertainer, radio talk show host, writer, and conservative political commentator. Since he was sixteen, Limbaugh has worked a series of disc jockey jobs. His talk show began in 1984 at Sacramento, California radio station KFBK, featuring his ongoing format of political commentary and listener calls. In 1988, Limbaugh began broadcasting his show nationally from radio station WABC in New York City, and now broadcasts from WOR. He currently lives in Palm Beach, Florida, where he broadcasts The Rush Limbaugh Show, the highest-rated talk-radio program in the United States. Talkers Magazine in 2012 lists Limbaugh as the most-listened-to talk show host with a weekly audience of 15 million Limbaugh frequently mentions his EIB (Excellence In Broadcasting) Network, trademarked in 1990.
  2. Sado-monitarism was a term coined by William Keegan, a writer for the Observer and author of The Spectre of Capitalism, in the early 1980s. At that time it was used to describe the policies associated with the rise in unemployment in Britain from one million to over 3 million in Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher’s first term in office. The term has been revived by the US commentator in the Financial Times, Gerard Baker, to describe the doctrine of those urging the Federal Reserve in America to raise interest rates despite high unemployment.
  3. Nancy Ann Grace is an American legal commentator, television host, television journalist, and former prosecutor. She frequently discusses issues from what she describes as a victims’ rights standpoint, with an outspoken style that has won her both praise and criticism. She is the host of Nancy Grace, a nightly celebrity news and current affairs show on HLN. The Supreme Court of Georgia has twice commented on Grace’s conduct as a prosecutor. First, in a 1994 heroin drug trafficking case, Bell v. State, the Court declared a mistrial, saying that Grace had “exceeded the wide latitude of closing argument” by drawing comparisons to unrelated murder and rape cases. In 1997 the court was more severe, overturning the murder-arson conviction of businessman W.\W. Carr in the death of his wife. While the court said its reversal was not due to these transgressions, since the case had turned primarily on circumstantial evidence, it nevertheless concluded “the conduct of the prosecuting attorney in this case demonstrated her disregard of the notions of due process and fairness, and was inexcusable.” In 2011 a New York Times article David Carr wrote “Since her show began in 2005, the presumption of innocence has found a willful enemy in the former prosecutor turned broadcast judge-and-jury.” He criticized her handling of the kidnapping of Elizabeth Smart, the Duke lacrosse case, the Melinda Duckett interview and suicide and the Caylee Anthony case. George Washington University law professor Jonathan Turley told Carr that Grace, as an attorney and reporter, “has managed to demean both professions with her hype, rabid persona, and sensational analysis. Some part of the public takes her seriously, and her show erodes the respect for basic rights.”

Chapter 23

  1. The Moral Majority was a prominent American political organization associated with the Christian right. It was founded in 1979 and dissolved in the late 1980s. Announcing the disbandment of the Moral Majority in 1989 in Las Vegas, Falwell declared, “Our goal has been achieved…The religious right is solidly in place and…religious conservatives in America are now in for the duration.”
  2. The 2003 invasion of Iraq lasted from March 19, 2003 to May 1, 2003 and signaled the start of the conflict that later came to be known as the Iraq War, which was dubbed Operation Iraqi Freedom by the United States. According to U.S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair, the coalition mission was “to disarm Iraq of weapons of mass destruction, to end Saddam Hussein’s support for terrorism, and to free the Iraqi people.” Former chief counter-terrorism adviser on the National Security Council Richard A. Clarke believes Bush took office with a predetermined plan to invade Iraq. General Wesley Clark, the former Supreme NATO Allied Commander and Joint Chiefs of Staff Director of Strategy and Policy, describes in his 2003 book, Winning Modern Wars, his conversation with a military officer in the Pentagon shortly after 9/11 regarding a plan to attack seven Middle Eastern countries in five years:  “As I went back through the Pentagon in November 2001, one of the senior military staff officers had time for a chat. Yes, we were still on track for going against Iraq, he said. But there was more. This was being discussed as part of a five-year campaign plan, he said, and there were a total of seven countries, beginning with Iraq, then Syria, Lebanon, Libya, Iran, Somalia, and Sudan.”
  3. On May 1, 2003, George W. Bush became the first sitting President to make an arrested landing in a fixed-wing aircraft on an aircraft carrier when he arrived at the USS Abraham Lincoln in a Lockheed S-3 Viking, dubbed Navy One, as the carrier lay just off the San Diego coast, having returned from combat operations in the Persian Gulf. He posed for photographs with pilots and members of the ship’s crew while wearing a flight suit. A few hours later, he gave a speech announcing the end of major combat operations in the Iraq War. Far above him was the warship’s banner stating “Mission Accomplished.” Bush stated at the time that this was the end to major combat operations in Iraq. Bush’s assertion—and the sign itself—became controversial after guerrilla warfare in Iraq increased during the Iraqi insurgency. The vast majority of casualties, both military and civilian, occurred after the speech.

Chapter 24

  1. “Some say it is unfair to hold disadvantaged children to rigorous standards. I say it is discrimination to require anything less—the soft bigotry of low expectations.” - George W. Bush, campaign speech before the NAACP (2000)

Chapter 25

  1. Corporate personhood is an American legal concept that a corporation may be recognized as an individual in the eyes of the law. This doctrine forms the basis for legal recognition that corporations, as groups of people, may hold and exercise certain rights under the common law and the U.S. Constitution. For example, corporations may contract with other parties and sue or be sued in court in the same way as natural persons or unincorporated associations of persons. The doctrine does not hold that corporations are flesh and blood “people” apart from their shareholders, executives, and managers, nor does it grant to corporations all of the rights of citizens.

Chapter 26

  1. Freedom fries was a political euphemism for French fries in the United States. The term came to prominence in 2003 when the then Republican Chairman of the Committee on House Administration, Bob Ney, renamed the menu item in three Congressional cafeterias in response to France’s opposition to the proposed invasion of Iraq. Ney represented Ohio’s eighteenth congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1995 until November 3, 2006, when he resigned. Ney’s resignation took place after he pled guilty to charges of conspiracy and making false statements in relation to the Jack Abramoff Indian lobbying scandal. He was convicted on charges of corruption and served a thirty-month jail sentence. Although originally supported, with several restaurants changing their menus as well, the term Freedom fries fell out of use following declining support for the Iraq War. French fries originated in Belgium. 
  2. In June 2004, the United States Department of Agriculture, with the advisement of a federal district judge from Beaumont, Texas, classified batter-coated French fries as a vegetable under the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act. This was primarily for trade reasons. French fries do not meet the standard to be listed as a processed food. This classification, referred to as the “French fry rule,” was upheld in the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit case Fleming Companies, Inc. v. USDA.
  3. Since 2006, twenty-five current and former Pennsylvania legislators and staffers have been charged and two legislative leaders convicted of using their offices for political or personal gain, while in the background firestorms of controversy have raged over things like budget delays, pensions and per diems. According to the most recent comprehensive report from the National Conference of State Legislatures, Pennsylvania has the largest full-time and second most expensive legislative branch in the nation. The report, based on information from the 2008-09 fiscal year, does not reflect recent cutbacks by some legislatures, including Pennsylvania’s, but is the latest available from NCSL. The report shows that, despite ranking sixth in the nation in population, Pennsylvania’s legislative branch of 253 lawmakers and 2,918 support staff, dwarfs those of larger, more populous states. No other state even comes close to the size of its legislative operation. Factoring in health and pension benefits and other expenses, the cost of the average legislator ranges from $125,000 to $150,000, depending on how much a legislator claims in reimbursements. - From “Cost and corruption of Pennsylvania legislature brings call for reform”, The Scranton Times-Tribune, April 25, 2010

Chapter 29

  1. During the Depression, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania attempted to fund public works through passage of the Pennsylvania State Authority Act in 1936. The Act provided for the incorporation of the General State Authority, which would purchase land from the state and add improvements to that land using state loans and grants. The state expected to receive Federal grants and loans to fund the project under the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal. The Pennsylvania Supreme Court, in Kelly v Earle, found the Act violated the state constitution. This prevented the state from receiving federal funds for Works Progress Administration projects and making it difficult to lower the extremely high unemployment rate. Pennsylvania manufactured 6.6 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking sixth among the 48 states.

Chapter 30

  1. Finley is the Secret Service code word for the Secretary of Defense.
  2. Robert Michael Gates (born September 25, 1943) is an American statesman and university president who served as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense from 2006 to 2011. Gates served for twenty-six years in the Central Intelligence Agency and the National Security Council, and under President George H. W. Bush was Director of Central Intelligence. Gates was also an officer in the United States Air Force and during the early part of his military career, he was recruited by the CIA. After leaving the CIA, Gates became president of Texas A&M University and was a member of several corporate boards. Gates served as a member of the Iraq Study Group, the bipartisan commission co-chaired by James A. Baker III and Lee H. Hamilton, that studied the lessons of the Iraq War.
  3. When he was first tapped under President Ford, Donald Rumsfeld was the youngest Secretary of Defense. On his second go-round, he was the oldest. Yet, unlike a fine wine, he didn’t improve with age. Before stepping aside in 2006, Rumsfeld bungled wars in Iraq and Afghanistan by failing to commit an adequate number of troops, alienated countless colleagues by failing to heed advice, and presided over a military whose image was indelibly stained by the scandal at Abu Ghraib prison.
    - From “Top 10 Worst Cabinet Members” Time Magazine online

Chapter 31

  1. In a normal conveyance between private parties in Pennsylvania, the so-called “Dunham Rule” governs whether use of the term “minerals” includes or excludes oil and natural gas. Dunham & Shortt v. Kirkpatrick, 101 Pa. 36 (1882). The rule is as follows: if, in connection with a conveyance of land, there is a reservation or an exception of “minerals” without any specific mention of natural gas or oil, a rebuttable presumption arises that the word “minerals” was not intended by the parties to include natural gas or oil. Highland v. Commonwealth, 400 Pa. 261, 161 A.2d 390 (1960)
  2. The phrase “a thousand points of light” was used by George Bush in his speech accepting the presidential nomination at the 1988 Republican National Convention in New Orleans. Written for Bush by Peggy Noonan and Craig R. Smith, the address likened America’s clubs and volunteer organizations to “a brilliant diversity spread like stars, like a thousand points of light in a broad and peaceful sky.” Bush reprised the phrase near the end of his speech, affirming that he would “keep America moving forward, always forward—for a better America, for an endless enduring dream and a thousand points of light.”
  3. A poll was conducted by Franklin & Marshall College and released on January 26, 2010 asking multiple questions concerning elections, the state of the state and other political issues. Among the questions included was whether or not the state should have a constitutional convention. According to the results of the poll, seventy-two percent of those asked stated they were in support of a convention. Pennsylvania was in the midst of a budget crisis, according to reports, and Governor of Pennsylvania Ed Rendell favored a constitutional convention question in the fall to help solve it. Rendell had been a proponent of a constitutional convention, and tried to pressure the legislature to send the measure to the ballot. In the end, the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention Question did not appear on the November 2, 2010 ballot as a legislative referral in the state of Pennsylvania.
  4. “Despite the overwhelming scientific consensus and high costs to taxpayers, there are still elected officials in Congress who refuse to accept that climate change is happening. Over 56 percent—133 members—of the current Republican caucus in the House of Representatives deny the basic tenets of climate science. 65 percent (30 members) of the Senate Republican caucus also deny climate change. What this means is that they have made public statements indicating that they question or reject that climate change is real, is happening, and is caused by human consumption of fossil fuels. This refusal to accept overwhelming scientific evidence is not just a symptom of the rank-and-file backbenchers. Members of GOP leadership and the committees that make critical decisions on national energy policy and air pollution have even higher concentrations: 90 percent of the Republican leadership in both House and Senate deny climate change. 17 out of 22 Republican members of the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology, or 77 percent, are climate deniers. 22 out of 30 Republican members of the House Energy and Commerce Committee, or 73 percent deny the reality of climate change. 100 percent of Senate Environment and Public Works Committee Republicans have said climate change is not happening or that humans do not cause it.”
    - from “The Anti-Science Climate Denier Caucus: 113th Congress Edition,” -ThinkProgress, June 26, 2013

Chapter 32

  1. At 548 feet (167 meters), including the statue of city founder William Penn atop it, Philadelphia City hall was the tallest habitable building in the world from 1901 to 1908. It remained the tallest in Pennsylvania until it was surpassed in 1932 by the Gulf Tower in Pittsburgh; it was the tallest in Philadelphia until the construction of One Liberty Place (1984–87) ended the informal gentleman’s agreement that limited the height of buildings in the city. Today, it is the state’s sixteenth-tallest building. City Hall has been the world’s tallest masonry building since the 1953 collapse of the pinnacle of the Mole Antonelliana in Turin. Its weight is borne by granite and brick walls up to 22 feet (6.7\meters) thick. The principal exterior materials are limestone, granite, and marble.
  2. Robert Heron Bork (March 1, 1927 – December 19, 2012) was an American legal scholar who advocated the judicial philosophy of originalism. Bork served as a Yale Law School professor, Solicitor General, Acting Attorney General, and a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. In 1987, he was nominated to the Supreme Court by President Ronald Reagan, but the Senate rejected his nomination. Bork was best known for his theory that the only way to reconcile the role of the judiciary in the U.S. government against what he terms the “Madisonian” or “counter-majoritarian” dilemma of the judiciary making law without popular approval is for constitutional adjudication to be guided by the framers’ original understanding of the United States Constitution. Bork had more success as an antitrust scholar, where his once-idiosyncratic view that antitrust law should focus on maximizing consumer welfare has come to dominate American legal thinking on the subject. Bork was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
  3. Jesse Fell was an early political leader in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. He was the first to successfully burn anthracite on an open air grate. His method and ‘discovery’ in 1808 led to the widespread use of coal as the fuel source that helped to foster America’s industrial revolution.
  4. The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) was an American think tank based in Washington, D.C. established in 1997 as a non-profit educational organization founded by William Kristol and Robert Kagan. The PNAC’s stated goal is “to promote American global leadership.” Fundamental to the PNAC was the view that “American leadership is good both for America and for the world” and support for “a Reaganite policy of military strength and moral clarity.” With its members in numerous key administrative positions, the PNAC exerted influence on high-level U.S. government officials in the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush and affected the Bush Administration’s development of military and foreign policies, especially involving national security and the Iraq War.
  5. The USA PATRIOT Act is an Act of Congress that was signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001. The title of the act is a ten-letter backronym (USA PATRIOT) that stands for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001. The USA PATRIOT Act has generated a great deal of controversy since its enactment. Opponents of the Act have been quite vocal in asserting that it was passed opportunistically after the September 11 attacks, believing that there would have been little debate. They view the Act as one that was hurried through the Senate with little change before it was passed. (Senators Patrick Leahy and Russell Feingold proposed amendments to modify the final revision.) The sheer magnitude of the Act itself was noted by Michael Moore in his controversial film Fahrenheit 9/11. In one of the scenes of the movie, he records Congressman Jim McDermott alleging that no Senator had read the bill and John Conyers, Jr. as saying, “We don’t read most of the bills. Do you really know what that would entail if we read every bill that we passed?” Congressman Conyers then answers his own rhetorical question, asserting that if they did it would “slow down the legislative process.”
  6. “Drill, baby, drill!” was a 2008 Republican campaign slogan first used at the 2008 Republican National Convention by former Maryland Lieutenant Governor Michael Steele, who was later elected Chairman of the Republican National Committee. The slogan expressed support for increased drilling for petroleum and gas as sources of additional energy and gained further prominence after it was used by Republican Vice Presidential nominee Sarah Palin during the vice-presidential debate.
  7. Christine Todd Whitman (born September 26, 1946) is an American Republican politician and author who served as the fiftieth Governor of New Jersey from 1994 to 2001, and was the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency in the administration of President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2003. In 2001, the EPA produced a report detailing the expected effects of global warming in each state in the country. President Bush dismissed the report as the work of “the bureaucracy.” On June 27, 2003, after having several public conflicts with the Bush administration, Whitman resigned. In an interview in 2007, Whitman stated that Vice President Dick Cheney’s insistence on easing air pollution controls, not the personal reasons she cited at the time, led to her resignation. At the time, Cheney pushed the EPA to institute a new rule allowing power plants to make major alterations without installing costly new pollution controls. Whitman stepped down in protest against such demand by the White House, she said. She decided that because she did not agree with the rule, she would not be able to defend it if it were to be challenged in a legal action. The federal court eventually overturned the rule on the ground that it violated the Clean Air Act.

Chapter 33

  1. A poll was conducted by Franklin & Marshall College and released on January 26, 2010 asking multiple questions concerning elections, the state of the state and other political issues. Among the questions included was whether or not the state should have a constitutional convention. According to the results of the poll, seventy-two percent of those asked stated they were in support of a convention. Pennsylvania was in the midst of a budget crisis, according to reports, and Governor of Pennsylvania Ed Rendell favored a constitutional convention question in the fall to help solve it. Rendell had been a proponent of a constitutional convention, and tried to pressure the legislature to send the measure to the ballot. In the end, the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention Question did not appear on the November 2, 2010 ballot as a legislative referral in the state of Pennsylvania.
  2. The phrase evil empire was first applied to the Soviet Union in 1983 by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who took an aggressive, hard-line stance that favored matching and exceeding the Soviet Union’s strategic and global military capabilities, in calling for a rollback strategy that would, in his words, write the final pages of the history of the Soviet Union. The characterization demeaned the Soviet Union and angered Soviet leaders. According To G. Thomas Goodnight, the “Evil Empire” speech along with the “Zero Option” and “Star Wars” speeches represented the rhetorical side of the United States’ escalation of the Cold War. In the former, Reagan depicted nuclear warfare as an extension of the “age old struggle between good and evil” while arguing that an increased nuclear inventory as well as progress in science and technology were necessary to prevent global conflict. Through these speeches, the Reagan Administration used rhetoric to reshape public knowledge about and attitudes toward nuclear warfare.
  3. In the days following the [9/11] attacks, New York mayor Rudolph Giuliani provided his own suggestion to those not directly involved in emergency operations. Praising residents of his city as “the best shoppers in the world,” he called on them to start spending money on food, entertainment, and consumer goods again. Tony Blair, the British prime minister, echoed that advice:  “People in this country ask what should they do at a time like this. The answer is that they should go about their daily lives: to work, to live, to travel, and to shop.” In a speech two weeks after the attack, President George W. Bush encouraged Americans to “get on the airlines, get about the business of America.” As the years passed and the list of official foreign enemies grew, that message persisted. In a news conference in late 2006, Bush assured Americans that his administrations and the Pentagon had gained control in both the War in Iraq and a dispute with Iran. Therefore, he said “I encourage you all to go shopping more.” Responding to the clamor for patriotic consumerism, the syndicated columnist Marsha Mercer lamented, “The president hasn’t asked ordinary Americans to sacrifice at all….’I want to do something to help,’ a nurse told me the other day. ‘I don’t want to shop.’” But today more than a decade after 9/11, more than three decades since the era of oil embargoes and gas lines, and, it appears, well into an era of ecological crisis, no movement for shared responsibility and sacrifice has emerged.  - From the Introduction of Any Way You Slice It: The Past, Present, and Future of Rationing, by Stan Cox
  4. ”This divide between blue city and red countryside has been growing for some time. Since 1984, more and more of America’s major cities have voted blue each year, culminating in 2012, when 27 out of the nation’s 30 most populous cities voted Democratic.\According to Dave Leip’s Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections\and The New York Times, the 2012 election marked the fourth time in the last five federal election cycles that voters shifted away from the party of the sitting president. Despite that constant churn, one part of the electoral map has become a crystal clear constant. Cities, year by year, have become drenched in more blue. Everywhere else is that much more red.
    - From “Red State, Blue City: How the Urban-Rural Divide Is Splitting America,” by Josh Kron, The Atlantic, Nov 30, 2012
  5. Anthony McLeod Kennedy (born July 23, 1936) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States who was appointed by President Ronald Reagan in 1988. Since the retirement of Sandra Day O’Connor, Kennedy has often been the swing vote on many of the Court’s five to four decisions.

Chapter 34

  1. Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 505 U.S. 833 (1992) was a case decided by the Supreme Court of the United States in which the constitutionality of several Pennsylvania state regulations regarding abortion were challenged. The Court’s plurality opinion upheld the constitutional right to have an abortion and altered the standards for analyzing restrictions of that right, invalidating one regulation but upholding the other four.
  2. In May 2011, detailed floor plans of the tower at One World Trade Center were posted on the New York City’s Department of Finance website. This resulted in an uproar from the media and citizens of the surrounding area, who warned that the plans could potentially be used for a future terrorist attack.