Philosophy

 

Book Cover-01Book Cover-01 Chapter 20

  1. Objectivism is a philosophical system that originated as the personal philosophy of Russian-born American writer Ayn Rand (1905–1982). Objectivism’s central tenets are that reality exists independent of consciousness, that human beings have direct contact with reality through sense perception, that one can attain objective knowledge from perception through the process of concept formation and inductive logic, that the proper moral purpose of one’s life is the pursuit of one’s own happiness (defined as rational self-interest), that the only social system consistent with this morality is one that displays full respect for individual rights embodied in laissez-faire capitalism, and that the role of art in human life is to transform humans’ metaphysical ideas by selective reproduction of reality into a physical form—a work of art—that one can comprehend and to which one can respond emotionally.
  2. The irresistible force paradox, also called the unstoppable force paradox, is a classic paradox formulated as “What happens when an unstoppable force meets an immovable object?” This paradox is a form of the omnipotence paradox, which is a simple demonstration that challenges omnipotence: (“Can God create a stone so heavy that not even God is strong enough to lift it?”).

Chapter 26

  1. The demiurge is a concept from the Platonic, Neopythagorean, Middle Platonic, and Neoplatonic schools of philosophy for an artisan-like figure responsible for the fashioning and maintenance of the physical universe. The term was subsequently adopted by the Gnostics. The word “demiurge” is an English word from a Latinized form of the Greek dēmiourgos, literally “public worker,” and which was originally a common noun meaning “craftsman” or “artisan,” but gradually it came to mean “producer” and eventually “creator.”

Chapter 28

  1. Argument from ignorance, also known as appeal to ignorance, is a fallacy in informal logic. It asserts that a proposition is true because it has not yet been proven false (or vice versa). This represents a type of false dichotomy in that it excludes a third option, which is that there is insufficient investigation and therefore insufficient information to prove the proposition satisfactorily to be either true or false. Nor does it allow the admission that the choices may in fact not be two (true or false), but may be as many as four (true, false, unknown between true or false, unknowable among the first three).

Chapter 31 

  1. Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known simply as Seneca (c. 4 BC – AD 65) was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature. He was a tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero. While he was forced to commit suicide for alleged complicity in the Pisonian conspiracy to assassinate Nero, he may have been innocent. His father was Seneca the Elder, his elder brother was Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus, called Gallio in the Bible, and his nephew was the poet Lucan.

Chapter 32  

  1. Zeno’s paradoxes are a set of philosophical problems generally thought to have been devised by Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea (ca. 490–430 BC) to support Parmenides’s doctrine that contrary to the evidence of one’s senses, the belief in plurality and change is mistaken, and in particular that motion is nothing but an illusion. The Dichotomy paradox: That which is in locomotion must arrive at the half-way stage before it arrives at the goal (as recounted by Aristotle, Physics VI:9, 239b10) .This argument is called the Dichotomy because it involves repeatedly splitting a distance into two parts. It is also known as the Race Course paradox.