- Draughts is a group of abstract strategy board games between two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over the enemy’s pieces. Draughts developed from alquerque. The name derives from the verb to draw or to move. The most popular forms are international draughts, played on a ten by ten board, followed by English draughts, also called American checkers, played on an eight by eight checkerboard, but there are many other variants including twelve by twelve, which is gaining popularity.
- Shōgi, also known as Japanese chess or the Generals’ Game, is a two-player strategy board game in the same family as Western (international) chess, chaturanga, makruk, shatranj and xiangqi, and is the most popular of a family of chess variants native to Japan. Shōgi means general’s (shō) board game (gi).
- In Gō, the origin of heaven is the center of the board, located at (10, 10).
- In Gō, five by five refers to a (5, 5) point in a corner, or a “go no go.” These points have strategic importance.
- In game theory, a Nash equilibrium (named after John Forbes Nash, who proposed it) is a solution concept of a game involving two or more players, in which each player is assumed to know the equilibrium strategies of the other players, and no player has anything to gain by changing only his own strategy unilaterally. If each player has chosen a strategy and no player can benefit by changing his or her strategy while the other players keep theirs unchanged, then the current set of strategy choices and the corresponding payoffs constitute a Nash equilibrium.
- The most common deck of fifty-two playing cards in use today, usually known as the French Deck, includes thirteen ranks of each of the four French suits, clubs, diamonds, hearts, and spades, with reversible Rouennais “court” or face cards. Each suit includes an ace, depicting a single symbol of its suit; a king, queen, and jack, each depicted with a symbol of its suit; and ranks two through ten, with each card depicting that many symbols (pips) of its suit. Anywhere from one to four (most often two) Jokers, often distinguishable with one being more colorful than the other, are included in commercial decks but many games require one or both to be removed before play. Modern playing cards carry index labels on opposite corners (rarely, all four corners) to facilitate identifying the cards when they overlap and so that they appear identical for players on opposite sides. The most popular style of the French Deck is sometimes referred to as “English” or “Anglo-American playing cards.”
- In a standard deck of Bicycle Rider Back 808’s the Queen of Clubs is wearing what appears to be a red veil on the left side of her face. It’s not quite a poppy collar, but it’s close.
- In a deck of playing cards, the term “face card” is generally used to describe a card that depicts a person. Modern decks include three face cards per suit, or twelve face cards in a deck of four suits. A deck of French playing cards has the Jack, the Queen, and the King. Italian and Spanish playing cards replace the Queen with the Knight, resulting in the Fante or Sota (Jack, a younger man standing), Cavaliere or Caballo (Knight, a man sitting on a horse) and Re o Rey (King, wearing a crown). German and Swiss playing cards similarly have three male face cards per deck: the Under/Unter (Jack, a lower-class man or soldier), the Ober (a higher clerk or “knight”, not necessarily on a horse), and the König (King). While modern decks of playing cards may contain a Joker (or two) depicting a person (such as a jester or clown), jokers are not normally considered to be face cards.
- S. W. Erdnase is a pseudonym used by the author of The Expert at the Card Table, a book detailing sleight of hand, cheating and legerdemain using playing cards. Still considered essential reading for any card magician, the book, known also as either the Bible or, commonly, just Erdnase, has been in continual publication since 1902. Erdnase’s true identity is one of the enduring mysteries of the magic community.
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